This is a computer-generated report that shows all of the federal activity with respect to the keyword "Coal" over the last six months. This is a demonstration of the power of our government relations automation software.
“...ion. We are investing in green infrastructure and clean technology. Importantly, we are phasing out coal to get to a place where 90% of our electricity will be generated by renewable resources by 2030...”
“...me while we are taking a leadership role on the international stage. That plan includes phasing out coal and, as I mentioned before, getting to 90% of our electricity generated from renewable resource...”
“...tions include pricing pollution right across the country, accelerating the phase-out of traditional coal power, making historic investments in cleaner infrastructure like public transit and charging s...”
“...y clear. We are going to put a price on pollution. We are accelerating the phase-out of traditional coal power. We are making historic investments in cleaner infrastructure. We are adopting regulation...”
“...national than with a Quebec company, to purchase trains that will be used in Quebec. What a lump of coal.Workers in La Pocatière are being laid off, and they are popping champagne corks in Sacr...”
“...entalists are all pulling together on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Canada needs to join this coalition, not sidestep it.”
“... all the good boys and girls out there. Like the Grinch himself, these people deserve a big lump of coal.Santa, naughty or nice, I want to wish everyone well. I wish merry Christmas to all of p...”
“...a plan that is actually going to protect our environment for future generations. We are phasing out coal more than 30 years ahead of schedule compared with the last government's plan. We are putting a...”
“...on pollution. However, this is one of over 50 measures that we are implementing. We are phasing out coal by 2030, more than 30 years ahead of what was previously scheduled to be the case. We are makin...”
“...s job killer that will harm the economy. They said so in this place. That brings me to the topic of coal.Recently the Liberal government provided a 95.5% carbon tax discount on burning coal for power in New Brunswick. Why? Because the Prime Minister and his inner circle decided that this was something Canada should do. Is it because the United States and Mexico do not have a carbon tax on the burning of coal? We do not know.Aside from coal there are other challenges.Some of our competing jurisdictions in the United States are ...”
“...elling together rather than taking their individual vehicles to their workplace. We are phasing out coal by 2030. The Conservatives had no plan to do so until 2062. This is not only going to have a positive environmental impact but a positive health impact on our communities as well. We know that when Canadians live near coal plants, there are higher rates of things like childhood asthma that drive up the cost of care a...”
“...e the largest single investment in public transit in the history of our country. We are phasing out coal 30 years sooner than the Conservatives would have done.The fact is, we are taking these ...”
“...re expecting. It is an issue we campaigned on, and now we are following through. We are phasing out coal to make sure that 90% of our electricity will be clean by 2030. We are making historic investme...”
“...plan is focused on investing in infrastructure, pricing pollution and making sure that we shut down coal-fired power plants. We are getting the job done. At the end of the day, this issue is too impor...”
“...ians broken.Why are we seeing a crisis in western Canada and in Ontario? The canaries in the coal mine in the last week alone are the price changes by the Premier of Alberta and the GM closure,...”
“...lastics, into the oceans. This realization has led to initiatives like NextWave, a non-governmental coalition founded by companies, including Dell, and an environmental group called Lonely Whale, which employs people living in coastal regions to collect discarded plastic within 30 miles of waterways to prevent it from making its way to the sea. So far, NextWave has focused on two types of plastic commonly found in marine environments, nylon 6 and polypropylene.Recently, HP announced it would be joining the NextWave coalition. In fact, since 2016, HP has been working with locals in Haiti to collect a total 550,000 ...”
“...tion act in the finance committee, putting forward the exact amendments that the Ontario Pay Equity Coalition, CUPE, the Teamsters and the Canadian Labour Congress proposed, detailed amendments under ...”
“...f the Island of Gabriola in my riding of Nanaimo—Ladysmith are proposed in order to receive Wyoming coal exports to China, coal that was refused by all western U.S. ports, the petitioners in this petition urge the governmen...”
“...s, the NGOs, the labour movement, teamsters, the Canadian Labour Congress and the Ontario Equal Pay Coalition all proposed extremely detailed amendments. They said the pay equity parts of this legisla...”
“...s greenhouse gas emissions by 40%. That 40% reduction was almost entirely due to the elimination of coal plants, which the party opposite protested and said that we needed more coal and could not run a country without it. When the member opposite realizes that it was the elimination of coal, a global recession, and the progressive implementation by cities across the country of greenho...”
“...ate change. We must tackle climate change, and we do have a plan.We have a plan to eliminate coal and invest in renewable energy, to put a price on pollution and to make historic investments in...”
“...s employment creates is the need for housing. As one of the first members of the Yukon Anti-Poverty Coalition, we have been lobbying for affordable housing for years as well. The new national housing ...”
“...up and talk about our climate change plan. We have a plan that is working.We are eliminating coal, putting a price on carbon, making unprecedented investments in public transit, hiring environm...”
“...owth and climate action plan. It is a comprehensive plan that invests in public transit, phases out coal power, invests in clean energy, prices pollution and supports energy efficiency across Canada.[...”
“...e we are able to go off fossil electricity entirely. That does not mean Alberta's plan of going off coal and going to fracked natural gas. That does not do it. It is about the same amount of greenhous...”
“...Our actions include pricing pollution across Canada, accelerating the phase-out of traditional coal power, making historic investments in cleaner infrastructure like public transit and charging s...”
“... claimed their carbon tax would drive the shift to cleaner energy sources and promised to shut down coal power, yet they propose to subsidize coal by virtually exempting it from the carbon tax. This will delay coal plant retirements, disincentive any shift to renewables, even cleaner gas, and allow harmful pollutants impacting health.Why is the government undermining the efforts by provinces like Alberta that have shown leadership in earlier shut down of coal power?”
“Mr. Speaker, our plan to fight climate change includes phasing out coal power plants by 2030. We know that is an essential part of it. I want to highlight again the fa...”
“...030 targets, and we know there will be more work to do after that. We are leading the Powering Past Coal Alliance with the United Kingdom. We have been a leader at COP since 2015. We will continue to ...”
“... in Israel in the summer. We met with members of the Israeli Knesset and one was from the Arab list coalition. It has a proportional representation program. The member from the Arab list said that he ...”
“...ight be unconstitutional. They weaken protection for part-time and temporary workers. The Equal Pay Coalition said that it means women will have to go to court all over again. Liberals cannot call thi...”
“...bus bill, a direct contradiction to the Liberal promise not to do this anymore.The Equal Pay Coalition told the finance committee that pay equity provisions in the bill are unconstitutional and...”
“...as emissions start to go up again.The second thing that happened was that Ontario got rid of coal plants, which also made a significant contribution. The Conservatives oppose that. In fact, they want to keep burning coal well into 2060, which is just not good for the planet.However, the thing that really has...”
“... comments from my friend, the member from the Toronto Island airport, who spoke earlier today about coal-fired plants.I would like my colleague from Alberta to actually talk about the irony of his comments on coal-fired plants. Not only did Dalton McGuinty not meet his intended targets on coal-fired plants, this bill would exempt coal-fired plants from the carbon tax.Residents in my area of the Durham region, commuters, single seniors, will be paying the carbon tax, and the Liberals are exempting coal-fired plants.”
“...ation is amazing. I go out to Sheerness, which is close to my hometown in central Alberta, and that coal-fired plant is running full bore. People do not even know it is on. That is the technology we s...”
“... learned that the Liberal government would give a carbon tax exemption to New Brunswick's Belledune coal facility. Now, the Liberals have admitted that their carbon tax on large emitters will kill job...”
“...ies. Those enterprises would be exempt from the Liberal carbon tax. Just this week, we learned that coal-fired plants would be exempt from the Liberal carbon tax. In New Brunswick, the Belledune coal-fired plant would be allowed to emit 800 tonnes of greenhouse gases for every gigawatt of electricity absolutely tax-free.Now, the government admits those coal-fired plants will be in operation for at least another 12 years, and that is if we would believe its promise that one day after it is long out of office that it will be able to shut down those coal-fired plants over a decade from now. In the meantime and in between time, those factories would...”
“...t is working to protect the environment, while growing the economy at the same time. By phasing out coal, protecting our oceans, and investing in renewables and public transit, our government is inves...”
“...lities. Fuel charges specific to each type of fuel, including gasoline, aviation fuel, natural gas, coal and combustible waste, among others, are meant to reflect a carbon pollution price of $20 per t...”
“...es that do not have that ability are left bearing the full brunt. Now we learn that he has exempted coal-fired power plants from his carbon tax.Why is the Prime Minister making pollution free a...”
“...from the member opposite gives me an opportunity highlight that we put a plan in place to phase out coal by 2030. Meanwhile, Stephen Harper's plan, which is the closest the Conservatives have to an actual plan because they have not put forward any plan, would have phased out coal by 2060, which is completely irresponsible. However, what is even more irresponsible is the party opposite has no plan to phase out coal or act on climate change at all. The Conservatives have no plan to do anything to tackle it as ...”
“... spinning tales, and I will not allow that kind of attack on our public broadcaster. He is allowing coal-fired plants to have up to a 96% exemption from his carbon tax. Again, the same question. Is th...”
“...te is mistaken, because he must think we are still under Stephen Harper's plan that was phasing out coal by the 2060s. This plan, our approach, is to phase out coal by 2030. We know that we need to take immediate action to fight climate change. That is why we ...”
“...ce for a moment and take a look at the new exemption that his government is giving to the Belledune coal-fired power plant, which will receive a 96% exemption on the emissions from the smokestack on that coal-fired plant.Could he explain why he is charging more to grandmothers driving to get groceries, but almost nothing to coal-fired plants back in his province?”
“...price on pollution, including a price on emitters.If the hon. member wants to talk about the coal industry, I would like to flag that we are actually phasing out coal by 2030. When the hon. member was actually sitting around the cabinet table under Stephen Harpe...”
“...The Liberals say carbon taxes will save the earth. Why are they taking carbon taxes then off their coal-fired plants?”
“...ves want to bring energy east back to life, like a zombie.This Liberal-Conservative pipeline coalition is quite the cabal. It feels like we are in a bad B movie. The only thing missing is a “sh...”
“...We are committed to doing that across all sectors. We have a price on pollution. We are phasing out coal. We are making historic investments in public transportation. We are investing in clean technol...”
“... 2030 target, and we know we will need to do more after that. We are pricing pollution, phasing out coal, investing in public transit and protecting more of our natural environment.Meanwhile, t...”
“...nge, to do our part and also to grow the economy. We are taking measures, which include phasing out coal, net-zero building standards, investments in renewables, investments in clean technology compan...”
“... and that there will be more to do. We are finally putting a price on pollution. We are phasing out coal. We are investing in green infrastructure. We are reversing the Conservatives' reckless changes...”
“...claiming that the people of Lac-Mégantic were not interested.The very same day, however, the Coalition des citoyens et organismes engagés pour la sécurité ferroviaire de Lac-Mégantic was on the...”
“...rd for the people of Sanguinet, La Prairie and Châteauguay. On Monday, the people of Quebec elected Coalition Avenir Québec to represent them for the next four years, and the people of my riding were ...”
“...energy that has 25% less CO2 per energy content than diesel and half the CO2 to BTU that bituminous coal has. The $40-billion investment is Canada's largest external investment in the history of our c...”
“...St. Lawrence, fully within Canadian waters, may in the words of one scientist be “the canary in the coal mine”.I certainly know that you know the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Mr. Speaker, not only as ...”
“...beckers used their right to vote to have their say. A large majority opted for change by voting for Coalition Avenir Québec. For the first time in more than 50 years, Quebec will be governed by a part...”
“...be a pilot on poverty reduction in British Columbia, one of seven communities. We pulled together a coalition of agencies that helped people in need to help people who were living in poverty. When I a...”
“...ombie. Surprise, surprise—the Liberals are open to it. Welcome to the Liberal-Conservative pipeline coalition. Luckily, the Quebec New Democrats are here to defend the Quebec consensus and protect our...”
“... a low-carbon world. The Chinese minister talked of his country's bold action, moving directly from coal-fired plants to renewable energy. The U.K. minister talked of his country's three-point plan of...”
“...Fifteen years ago I was part of a group of London business people who started the Ability First Coalition to encourage employers to hire and retain people with disabilities. I put the emphasis on ...”
“...”, penned by 350.org, a foreign anti-oil protest group, which outlines a strategy by an anti-energy coalition to block the Trans Mountain expansion.The Financial Post revealed that Tides Canada...”
“Mr. Speaker, the Prime Minister's summer failure has also included his carbon tax coalition falling apart in tatters, but even before Rachel Notley pulled out and abandoned the carbo...”
“...tising targeting young people.At a committee meeting, I asked witnesses from Quebec's Weight Coalition whether the obesity rate went down after Quebec passed the legislation. One witness replie...”
“...tising, and products on supermarket shelves. When I discussed this with people from Quebec's Weight Coalition, they told me that exceptions to the legislation are an ongoing problem.This bill w...”
“...peaker, our government stands strong in the fight against Daesh and will continue to be part of the coalition, as we defend minorities of all types from the murderous terrorist organization of Daesh a...”
“...en’s Resource Centre, Lucille Harper has been on the frontlines of the Antigonish Poverty Reduction Coalition, the Antigonish Affordable Housing Society, the Antigonish Community Transit Society and S...”
“...-48, the oil tanker moratorium act. Yesterday, a group of 15 First Nations chiefs from the National Coalition of Chiefs, the Indian Resource Council and the Eagle Spirit Chiefs Council were here to sp...”
“...e it. In Canada, we are blessed with hydro, uranium and natural gas. All of them emit less CO2 than coal and diesel. Yet there is no concentrated effort to use these energy sources to reduce CO2 because the environmental movement doesn’t like any of these options, so neither do the Liberals, who never met an environmental lobby they wouldn’t pander to. Couple this with the fact that Canada is a carbon sink that, by some estimates, absorbs 20 to 30 per cent more than we emit and with enough land mass to increase the amount of carbon we can absorb. But we don’t talk about that either. So all those solutions are at hand, and instead we provide subsidies for electric vehicles, which no one will buy without a subsidy, and a carbon tax which Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick and soon Alberta are opposed to because they fear, with good reason, that it is simply a revenue grab by the federal government. Enjoying the fruits of civilization and progress while addressing the impact it has on our environment is hard work. It means making tough decisions. The energy industry in Canada is a leader in working towards a cleaner environment. Their variety of products is itself a way to assist in decreasing CO2 emissions. Natural gas is a good substitute for coal. Liquefying it and sending it to Asia would have a positive effect in helping those nations red...”
“...ternative approach. According to at an economic study commissioned by the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition, a well-designed carbon price is an indispensable part of a strategy for reducing emissions in an effective and cost-efficient way. Since carbon pricing lets the market decide how emissions will be reduced, a large number of businesses, including companies from the energy sector, are convinced carbon pricing is the way to go. Amongst the partners of the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition, we find well-known names such as British Petroleum, Cenovus Energy, Enbridge, Shell Canad...”
“...pe Breton’s centennial contribution, the Men of the Deeps, this unique choir of working and retired coal miners, went on under the unassuming leadership of Jack O’Donnell to become the first Canadian performing group to tour China in 1976 after diplomatic relations had been restored. In 1999, at the invitation of Vanessa Redgrave, Jack and the men performed at a festival in Kosovo in support of UNICEF. From China and Kosovo, to Massey Hall, to the Ekati mine in the Northwest Territories and to many communities large and small across our land, Jack O’Donnell led the men and their Cape Breton coal mining culture and music into the hearts of people. Jack’s collaboration with Rita MacNeil, ada...”
“...parents obtain the adoptive name of the child they lost to adoption. After years of advocacy by the Coalition for Open Records PEI, the Honourable Tina Mundy, P.E.I.’s Minister of Family and Human Ser...”
“...s for the Leader of the Government in the Senate. It’s about the Dubai Expo 2020. The Canadian Arts Coalition said in their testimony to the Standing Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs and Internatio...”
“...ire in 1833. From the 1920s on, hundreds of Caribbean immigrants came to Cape Breton to work in the coal mines and the steel industry. (1540) Our two African Nova Scotian women mentioned earlier came ...”
“...terms of beneficial ownership transparency. A 2018 report by Transparency International, the global coalition against corruption, lists Canada as a laggard on its legal framework on beneficial ownersh...”
“...levy, capped CO2 emissions from Alberta’s oil sands, and moved aggressively towards eliminating all coal-fired electrical generation in the province. Pundits told Albertans we needed to make those sac...”
“...n women. [English] Honourable colleagues, many of you have certainly read the brief prepared by the Coalition for Gun Control. Allow me to quote the report: Legally owned, easily accessible rifles and shotguns are the guns of choice in domestic violence and women’s safety experts and front-line shelter workers have repeatedly said that controlling access to all firearms is crucial to preventing avoidable deaths. Every year in Canada, more than 100,000 women and children leave their homes to seek safety in a shelter. Gun violence is present in many of these cases, taking such forms as intimidation, control and homicide. Studies and coroner inquests have shown that rates of homicide in domestic violence situations increase significantly when there is a firearm in the home. “Long guns” — rifles and shotguns — are the guns most likely to be used in domestic violence situations. Women’s safety experts and front-line women’s organizations have repeatedly spoken out on the importance of gun control and the gun registry to protecting women at risk of domestic violence. With stronger controls on firearms, murders of women with guns have decreased dramatically — from 131 in 1991 to 32 in the last year for which there is data. Nevertheless, firearms continue to figure prominently in the cycle of violence against women and children in their homes. Strong licensing provisions are critical to reducing violence against women. [Translation] Besides the crimes reported and compiled into the annual statistics, the presence of a rifle as a tool of intimidation must not be underestimated. Senator Miville-Dechêne asked the following question, and I quote: For example, are written statements from respondents good enough, or should officials try to speak to them directly to confirm that they have no concerns about their significant other or spouse obtaining a firearms licence? (1650) That is a very good question and I hope that the committee that will study Bill C-71 will look into it. However, let’s also consider the spouse already dealing with a violent man who then asks her to submit a written declaration in support of his possession licence. Imagine the pure terror this situation would cause. The coalition included recommendations in its brief that were made after members realized that Bill C-71...”
“...rivate member’s bill written by a former Conservative MP, Mr. John Weston. Mr. Weston built a broad coalition of support for his bill among all parties. I would like to take this opportunity to congra...”
“...er the law came into effect, other forms of marketing to youth increased. It is good to see that La Coalition Poids, the Quebec coalition, supports Bill S-228. The Stop Marketing to Kids Coalition, which includes 12 notable allied health agencies, co-led by the Heart and Stroke Foundati...”
“Honourable senators, this summer I had the pleasure of attending the Equal Rights Coalition Global Conference on LGBTI Human Rights and Inclusive Development in Vancouver. Our colleagues Senators Cormier and McPhedran were there as well. The Equal Rights Coalition is an international organization. It was created in 2016 and is currently co-chaired by Canada and Chile. The ERC has 36 member states, which support the advancement of LGBTI rights in both their own countries and internationally. The conference included state representatives, non-governmental organizations and civil rights activists. The thorough discussions that took place during the conference led to a series of member state commitments, among others, to work to include LGBTI people in development, civil society and the workplace, and to maintain an ongoing discourse and sharing of knowledge that might help us all to further advance the rights of LGBTI people. Among the attendees were activists from countries where people are persecuted for their expression of their identities. I had the privilege of speaking personally with some of these courageous people who have come so far despite daunting odds and terrifying challenges. Their stories are tragic, powerful and inspiring. Canada has made commendable strides in honouring the rights of LGBTI people. I think we should be proud of how far we have come. However, to paraphrase Minister Freeland’s speech at the conference, this pride must also be tempered by humility as we recognize how much work is still left to do. Canada has a critical role to play wherever we can to promote and advance the rights of LGBTI people to help them realize and achieve the rights that are inherently theirs. Our participation in the Equal Rights Coalition is an important step in doing that. (1420)”
“...ced its final investment decision for LNG Canada, a $40 billion project that will help Asia get off coal and replace it with the world’s cleanest LNG. This is a great story for Canada, but you may hav...”
“...given her degree of intoxication. As emphasized to the court by the Women’s Equality and Liberation Coalition, an intervener group of organizations with front-line expertise concerning sexual exploita...”
“...ronment and they have made a decision — and as a government, we have done so as well — to phase out coal-fired electricity generation. There are a number of steps being taken in order to make sure tha...”
“...in 2015, in the Blueprint for National Action Plan to End Violence Against Women and Girls, a broad coalition of contributors agreed about the kind of concrete measures that are required to address th...”
“...ink of the right to abortion — but I am among those Quebecers who hope that conditions will one day coalesce and be favourable for Quebec to accede to the Constitution Act, 1982. Throughout my career,...”
“...l. Thomas D’Arcy McGee was buried out of that school. Thomas D’Arcy McGee was able to fashion great coalitions of unity, alliance and cooperation between the French Roman Catholics and the Irish Roman...”
“...anks lower than bigger emitters such as China and the U.S., which rely on greenhouse-gas-generating coal to generate electricity, due to the fact that Canada produces 60 per cent of its energy by clean hydro power while another 3 per cent of total energy consumption is generated by non-hydro renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind, tidal and solar. Conversely, the U.S. and China produce 30 per cent and 73 per cent respectively of their electrical energy from coal sources. So not only will this tax be punitive for residents, but it places Nunavut’s competiti...”
“...carbon trading a “key part” of the government’s emissions plan, targeting oil and gas producers and coal-fired power plants. In 2008, B.C. implemented a carbon tax, with proceeds going back to taxpaye...”
December 7, 2018
“... comments. Transport Canada received 69 comments from individuals and organizations, including 44 from air operators (including associations and coalitions of air operators) and 23 from individual pilots, pilot associations and pilot unions.
1. Implementation period
November 30, 2018
CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT, 1999
“...ult from the generation of electricity by means of thermal energy from the combustion of natural gas, whether in conjunction with other fuels, except coal, or not.Interpretation
2 (1) The following definitions apply in these Regulations.
Act means the C...”
“...as, gas from wastewater treatment systems, refinery gas, sour gas, blast furnace gas, producer gas, coke oven gas, gas derived from petroleum coke or coal — including synthetic gas — or any gaseous fuel produced in a process that might result in highly variable sulphur content or heating...”
“...a boiler unit referred to in subsection 3(4), has the same meaning as in subsection 2(1) of the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations. (vie utile)
useful thermal energy means energy in the form of steam or hot water that is de...”
“...ly to any boiler unit referred to in subsection (1) that was registered under subsection 4(1) of the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations, and that generated electricity before January 1, 2019, beginning on January 1 of the calendar year following that in which the unit ceases to combust coal.
(5) If a combustion engine unit and a boiler unit share the same steam turbine, the provisions of these...”
“...to units with respect to a calendar year in which they generate electricity and, if applicable, produce useful thermal energy from the combustion of coal as defined in subsection 2(1) of the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations.Requirements Emission Intensity Limits
4 (1) A responsible person ...”
“...y for a boiler unit referred to in subsection 3(4) within 12 months following(a) in the case of a unit that has ceased to combust coal before January 1, 2019, January 1, 2019; or (b) in the case of a unit that ceases to combust coal on or after January 1, 2019, the day on which electricity generated from the boiler unit was first sold or distributed to the electric grid, ...”
“... the unit’s registration number, if any, assigned by the Minister under subsection 4(2) of the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations; (g) whether the unit is a boiler unit or a combustion engine unit; (h) a process flow diagr...”
“... (f) the unit’s registration number assigned by the Minister under subsection 4(2) of the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations; and (g) the unit’s capacity.
3 The following information respecting the emission...”
“...ment is not part of the regulations.)Issues
Significant investments in the electricity sector are expected as it phases out the use of coal to generate electricity (coal-fired electricity generation) in Canada. As there are no federal regulations controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from natural gas-fire...”
“...wth and Climate Change, which includes a commitment to expand clean electricity sources, supported by infrastructure investments and regulations for coal and natural gas-fired electricity generation. footnote 1 The 2017 federal budget committed $21.9 billion over 11 years in green infrastructure. Na...”
“... 2018, the Department of the Environment (the Department) published the proposed Regulations Amending the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations and the proposed Regulations Limiting Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Natural Gas-fired Generation of El...”
“...ectricity generation in Canada footnote 2 and to ensure that any new and significantly modified natural gas-fired electricity units built to replace coal-fired electricity units meet emission performance standards.Electricity generation GHG emissions
In 2015, Canada’s GHG emissio...”
“...ion would rise to about 22 Mt CO2e. The estimated 56% decrease in overall GHG emissions is due in large part to the expected phase-out of the use of coal to generate electricity in Canada. The projected rise in GHG emissions from natural gas-fired electricity generation is a result of replacement generation coming on line as coal-fired electricity generation is phased out.Summary of natural gas-fired electricity generation technologies
Utility-scale, natural g...”
“... one of the following types: a combustion engine (e.g. gas turbine or reciprocating engine), or a boiler. This includes boilers that were previously coal-fired and are converted to burn natural gas (coal-to-gas conversion). An overview of the technologies used to generate electricity using natural gas in Canada is presented below.1. Combust...”
“...pected to grow in the near future as it is generally agreed that this technology is currently the most cost-effective and reliable option to replace coal-fired electricity generation capacity in Canada. (b) Reciprocating engines In these engines, fuel combusts in a cylinder, driving a pist...”
“...e steam spins a steam turbine that drives a generator to produce electricity. Boiler units can burn a variety of fuels, including but not limited to coal, petroleum coke, heavy fuel oil, natural gas, and biomass, alone or in combination.
The number of natural-gas fired boilers has been in decline, mainly due to improvements in the efficiency and flexibility of gas turbine technology.3. Coal-to-gas conversion
Conversion to combust natural gas could be as simple as installing a gas nozzle on an existing coal burner and tying into the existing natural gas supply system, or the conversion could be more complex, requiring the installation of completely ne...”
“...ications would depend on the unit being considered for modification.
In 2017, TransAlta announced that its Board of Directors approved six coal-to-gas conversions footnote 5 in Alberta. The six coal-to-gas conversions are expected to— occur between 2020 and 2022, 6 to 9 years before coal-fired electricity units will be required to meet the performance standard under federal and provincial coal-fired electricity regulations; — add between 5 to 10 years of economic life to each coal-to-gas converted unit after the year in which they would have been required to meet the performance standard, if not converted to run on natural gas, under federal and provincial coal-fired electricity regulations; — provide reliable back-up capacity; and — help the sector with its overall strategy to trans...”
“... of such standards. This is expected to facilitate the planning and investment decision-making processes associated with the phase out of the use of coal-fired electricity generation and the construction of new natural gas-fired electricity generation capacity in Canada.Description
“...as that begin producing electricity before January 1, 2019, that moved to a new facility; and — boiler units that previously burned coal, registered under subsection 4(1) of the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations, and are converted to burn natural gas to generate electricity (coal-to-gas conversion).
Below is a summary of the performance standards and other requirements under the Regulations.
“...han 0.9; footnote 13 and — electricity generated by the unit is sold or distributed to the grid.
3. Performance standards for coal boilers significantly modified to burn natural gas to generate electricity (coal-to-gas conversion)
Significantly modified coal boiler units that cease using coal as a fuel footnote 14 and continue operating using natural gas to generate electricity will be allowed to operate without meeting a performance standard for a limited period of time, after which they must meet a performance standard. The performance standard for coal-to-gas conversions will be deferred for a prescribed period (either 0, 5, 8 or 10 years after the unit’s end of useful life footnote 15) determined by an initial coal-to-gas converted boiler performance test.
The initial performance test and the emission intensity determined from this test must be reported under the Regulations, generally within 12 months after the coal-to-gas conversion is completed. The emission intensity during the initial performance test will establish how many years the coal-to-gas converted unit could operate without meeting a performance standard of 420 t of CO2/GWh, where units that are more efficient will be allowed to operate longer without meeting the standard.
For coal-to-gas converted boiler units, the performance standard of 420 t of CO2/GWh of energy produced would not apply for a given number of years as foll...”
“...an a 2% increase in the emission intensity from the previous performance test to be in compliance.
The Regulations will apply to converted coal-to-gas boiler units if they meet the conditions below:— the unit has been registered under subsection 4(1) of the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations; — the unit ceased combusting coal and continues to generate electricity using natural gas as a fuel on or after January 1, 2019, the coming into force date for these units; ...”
“...t cease to meet any of the application criteria in a given year, only a shortened report is required for this year. Owners or operators of converted coal-to-gas boiler units will be required to submit their annual performance test reports for the period during which the performance emission standard...”
“...equirement21 as the emission performance test parameters were based on information provided by operators based on the current efficiency of affected coal boilers.“One-for-One” Rule
The Regulations are expected to result in a minor increase in administrative burden...”
“...e with training in natural or applied science would require 0.5 hours to produce the report for the initial emissions intensity test associated with coal-to-gas conversions. At each facility, it is assumed that administrative support staff will need an average of 0.5 hours to register facility ...”
“... Part I, for a 60-day public comment period. The NOI advised of the intent of the Government to amend the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations published on September 12, 2012, and to develop regulatory requirements for natural gas-fired ele...”
“...ment received comments from 22 stakeholders on the proposed definitions, performance standard level, reporting requirements, quantification methods, coal-to-gas conversions, and policy objectives. Below is a summary of these comments and the response by the Government.
“...he level of such standards. This is expected to help facilitate investment decision-making processes as the electricity sector transitions away from coal-fired electricity generation to lower and non-emitting forms of electricity generation in Canada.
The Department acknowledges that due to uncertainties about the future supply mix of electricity generation in Canada related to the impact of replacing coal-fired electricity generation capacity, some natural gas-fired electricity units may need to operate above BAT optimal levels from time to time. It...”
“...t the emergency clause is meant to allow operators to call units online to avert emergencies and thus these units should not be penalized.
Some stakeholders commented that the prescribed period for which a converted coal-to-gas boiler unit may operate without meeting a performance standard was too long (up to 10 years after the unit’s end of useful life). They suggested that coal-to-gas conversions that cannot meet a performance standard of 420 t of CO2/GWh should be forced to cease operations by December 31, 2029, or within 8 to 10 years after conversion, whichever comes first. They argued that this should include coal-to-gas conversions under any potential federal-provincial equivalency agreements. The Department concluded that based on available information on the announced six coal-to-gas conversions in Alberta, which are expected to occur between 2020 and 2022, and considering technological/economic constraints, most of...”
“...e beyond December 31, 2029.
While one stakeholder proposed increasing the level of the 2% performance decay annual allowance for coal-to-gas converted boilers, another opposed limiting annual performance decay to 2%, arguing that it could interfere with maintenance scheduling. Th...”
“...and it was determined that the level of this performance decay allowance is enough to achieve the objective of preventing significant degradation of coal-to-gas converted boilers from year to year. The 2% performance decay allowance is needed to ensure that operators will maintain their coal-to-gas converted boilers in good operating condition.
An industrial stakeholder suggested including additional and specific parameters for emission performance testing. For example, that the initial performance test be completed within six months after a coal-to-gas conversion, and that the required emissions testing parameters be based on normal operating conditions and not staged in unrealistic and un...”
Some stakeholders commented that the policy facilitates the phase-out of one fossil fuel by its replacement with another fossil fuel (coal to natural gas) and does not send meaningful market and/or price signals to investors on natural gas and therefore decreases the policy’s ro...”
“...supporting one of the objectives of the Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change, to accelerate the reduction of GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation in Canada. There are other federal initiatives, such as the Greenhouse Gas Pollution Pricing Act and clean fuel stand...”
“...ers was a concern that federal climate change policies affecting the electricity sector, including the regulations to accelerate GHG reductions from coal-fired electricity generation, the clean fuel standard, and the output-based carbon pricing system, were being developed at a challenging pace and ...”
“...nd socioeconomic impacts.Rationale
In Canada, significant investment is expected in the electricity sector as it phases out the use of coal to generate electricity. Investment decisions to build electricity generation capacity are a complex process that involves analyses of several fac...”
“...actors, such as lack of clarity of regulatory frameworks, could affect the sector in the future and influence investment decisions on how to replace coal-fired electricity generation capacity. As a result, the Regulations will set GHG emission intensity limits for new and significantly modified...”
“...sts associated with compliance promotion or enforcement activities are anticipated.Businesses
Owners and operators choosing to replace coal-fired electricity generation capacity or meet increasing demand of electricity in Canada with new natural gas-fired electricity generation, specif...”
“...standards set out in the Regulations. This is because these technologies minimize fuel consumption and emit about 40% to 50% less GHG emissions than coal-fired electricity generation. These factors combined help respond to changes in market structure and carbon pricing or carbon reducing policies that governments have implemented, or plan to implement. Owners and operators choosing to convert their coal boilers to burn natural gas to produce electricity (coal-to-gas conversion), as a short-term transition away from coal, are expected to comply with the performance test parameters and operate within the timeframe set out in the Regulations. This is based on the ana...”
“...not expected to have a significant impact on businesses choosing to build new natural gas-fired electricity generation capacity in Canada, including coal-to-gas conversions.
For each calendar year during which a natural gas-fired electricity generation unit is subject to the Regulations, o...”
“...these reporting requirements with those under the changes to the GHGRP, which are expected to come into force before the Regulations. Similarly, for coal-to-gas conversion units, owners and operators will be required to submit annual performance test reports, which consist of a single test run, last...”
Return to footnote 5 referrerFootnote 6
For more information on the six coal-to-gas conversions, please see https://www.transalta.com/newsroom/news-releases/transalta-board-approves-plan-for-accelerating-transition-to-clean...”
“...or cogeneration applications.
Return to footnote 13 referrerFootnote 14
Only coal-fired boilers that registered under subsection 4(1) of the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations.
Return to footnote 14 referrerFootnote 15
A coal unit’s end of useful life is as defined in the amended Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations.
Return to footnote 15 referrerFootnote 16 ...”
The Department discussed with industry the achievable level of the performance standards based on analysis of existing coal boilers in Canada and the United States. For details on the requirement, please see the Description section of this document.
November 30, 2018
CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT, 1999
“...Regulations Amending the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations: SOR/2018-263
Canada Gazette, Part II, Volume 152, Number 25
“... in the Canada Gazette, Part I, on February 17, 2018, a copy of the proposed Regulations Amending the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations, substantially in the annexed form, and persons were given an opportunity to file comments with respe...”
“... of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 footnote b, makes the annexed Regulations Amending the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations.Regulations Amending the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations Amendments
1 (1) The definition calendar year in subsection 2(1) of the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations footnote 1 is repealed.
(2) Paragraphs (a) and (b) of the definition useful life in subsect...”
“...le 4 to Schedule 5; and
(2) Subparagraphs 24(6)(a)(i) and (ii) of the Regulations are replaced by the following:(i) coal or biomass, in accordance with ASTM D5865 - 13, entitled Standard Test Method for Gross Calorific Value of Coal and Coke, (ii) a fuel from waste, in accordance with ASTM D5865 - 13, and
12 Paragraph 2(d) of Schedule 1 to t...”
“... Issues: The Government of Canada is committed to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada to mitigate the impact of climate change. Coal-fired electricity generating units are the highest emitting stationary sources of GHGs and air pollutants in Canada. The amendments to the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations (the Amendments) will accelerate Canada’s reduction of GHG emissions from electricity generatio...”
“...lp achieve Canada’s domestic and international commitments to reduce overall GHG emissions. Description: The Amendments will require all coal-fired electricity generating units to comply with an emissions performance standard of 420 tonnes of carbon dioxide per gigawatt hour of electricity produced (t of CO2/GWh) by 2030, at the latest. This performance standard is designed to phase out conventional coal by 2030. Cost-benefit statement: The expected reduction in cumulative GHG emissions resulting from the Amendments is approximately 94...”
“...in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, with Saskatchewan and Alberta making up most of the remaining costs. These four provinces contribute 99.7% of total coal-fired generation in Canada and will therefore experience the most significant impacts of the Amendments. Much of the incremental burden for compl...”
“...-One” Rule and small business lens: The Amendments will not change the reporting requirements of the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations (the Regulations). As a result, there will be no incremental administrative burden and, therefore, th...”
“...n Clean Growth and Climate Change (the Pan-Canadian Framework). The Government of Canada recognizes the importance of making the transition away from coal a fair one for affected workers and communities. The Task Force on Just Transition for Canadian Coal Power Workers and Communities, established by the Government of Canada, engaged affected workers and communities to provide recommendations on how to make the transition away from coal a fair one for workers and communities. The Government of Canada is working with the provinces to accelerate the transition to clean electricity,...”
“...with interested provinces. Internationally, the Government of Canada is working with the Government of the United Kingdom to launch the Powering Past Coal Alliance, a global alliance to phase out coal-fired electricity generation. Background
The Regulations were published in the Canada Gazette, Part II, in September&nbs...”
“...ations impose a performance standard (an emissions limit) of 420 t of CO2/GWh of electricity produced by electricity generating units fuelled by coal, coal derivatives and petroleum coke. The standard is designed to allow electricity generating units to permanently shift to lower- or non-emitting typ...”
“... a whole, from about 79 Mt CO2e in 2015footnote 5 to 43 Mt CO2e estimated in 2030, about a 46% decrease, mainly due to the declining use of coal as a fuel for electricity generation. This decrease is due in large part to the Regulations.
In 2015, coal-fired units, responsible for 11% of the total electricity generated in Canada, accounted for 78% (61.5 Mt CO2e) of GHG emissions from the sector. By 2030, coal-fired units are expected to generate only 5% of the total electricity generated in Canada, but would account for nearly 63% (27 Mt CO2e) of ...”
“...ricity sector include a commitment from federal, provincial, and territorial governments to work together to accelerate the phase-out of conventional coal-fired units in Canada by 2030 as part of the plan to achieve the Canada’s Paris Agreement commitment.
The Government of Cana...”
“...nd fair transition for workers and communities that may be affected by the transition to a low-carbon economy, including the phase-out of traditional coal-fired electricity. In an effort to better understand and minimize the impacts of this phase-out, the Government of Canada launched a Task Force on Just Transition for Canadian Coal Power Workers and Communities. The Task Force includes representatives from labour, business, and municipal government, as well as sustainable de...”
“...ment and workforce development experts. In spring 2018, the Task Force travelled to the affected regions across Canada. Its members met directly with coal workers and communities and consulted stakeholders and governments. The Task Force will provide recommendations by the end of 2018 on what could be included in a just transition plan for coal power workers and communities.
In November 2017, the Government of Canada partnered with the Government of the United Kingdom to launch the Powering Past Coal Alliance, a global alliance to phase out coal-fired electricity.
In order to support the Government of Canada’s commitment under the Paris Agreement, on December 17, 2016...”
“...hed a notice of intent (NOI) in the Canada Gazette, Part I, footnote 9 that communicated its intent to amend the Regulations to require that all coal-fired units meet the performance standard of 420 t of CO2/GWh by no later than 2030.Affected units and provincial reduction measures
In 2017, there were 36 coal-fired electricity generating units operating at 16 facilities in 5 provinces, with a combined generating capacity of approximately 10 0...”
“...l be able to meet the 420 t of CO2/GWh performance standard and operate past its prescribed end of useful life. As a result, the total number of coal-fired units expected to operate past 2030 in the absence of the Amendments is 15, plus one unit that has been equipped with carbon capture and storage.
Figures 1 and 2 show the location of coal-fired electricity generating facilities and high-voltage transmission lines in Alberta and Saskatchewan, and New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, respectively.
Figure 1: Coal-fired electricity generating facilities in Alberta and Saskatchewan
Figure 2: Coal-fired electricity generating facilities in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia
The bar graph in Figure 3 shows the number of unit...”
“...tween 2019 and 2055, in the absence of the Amendments but including provincial policy announcements, such as Alberta’s announced closure of all coal units by the end of 2030. The area graph behind the bars shows the combined capacity of the units in operation. The right, vertical axis shows the combined capacity of coal-fired units operating in megawatts.
Figure 3: Forecast of counts and capacity of coal-fired generating units in CanadaAlberta
The electricity sector in Alberta is a government-organized energy marke...”
“... to dispatch electricity, whether it is supplied or not. The new framework is expected to be in place by 2021.footnote 11 In 2017, there were 18 coal-fired generation units operating in Alberta, with a total capacity of 6 286 MW.
In 2015, coal-fired generating plants in Alberta accounted for 53.0% (41.9 Mt CO2e)footnote 12 of all GHG emissions from electric utility generation in Canada....”
“...f 2030. Six further units are expected to shut down before 2030 due to the Regulation, while the remaining six units will convert the fuel usage from coal to natural gas.
Under its Climate Leadership Plan (2015),footnote 13Alberta has committed to eliminating GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generating sources by the end of 2030. This plan also imposes a carbon price of $30 per tonne of CO2 emissions on large industr...”
“...bsp;000 MW of wind and solar capacity by 2030, which would replace the equivalent of approximately 80% of the electricity currently generated by coal. New natural gas-fired units are expected to replace the remaining capacity.Coal to natural gas conversion
One firm in Alberta has announced intentions to convert six coal-fired units to run on natural gas between 2020 and 2022 (coal-to-gas conversions). These units have a combined maximum capacity of approximately 2 400 MW. Once converted, they would no longer be subject to ...”
“...its were developed in parallel with the Amendments, and will set a performance standard for all new natural gas-fired generating units as well as coal-fired generating units that have been converted to run on natural gas.Saskatchewan
The electric utility sector in Saskatchewan is a ...”
“...ly with most of the generating and transmission assets owned and operated by SaskPower, a provincial Crown corporation. In 2017, there were seven coal-fired electricity generation units operating in Saskatchewan, with a total capacity of 1 535 MW.
In 2015, coal-fired electricity generating facilities in Saskatchewan accounted for 15.6% (12.3 Mt CO2e)footnote 16 of all GHG emissions from electric utility...”
“...ate for this unit is below the performance standard limit set by the Regulations and it would not be affected by the Amendments.
Two coal-fired generating units are expected to retire in 2020, another in 2028, and two more in 2030. The remaining unit, with a capacity of 276 MW is expected to retire in 2043. Most of the electricity generated by the coal units retiring before 2030 is expected to be replaced by a new natural gas-fired generating unit that would begin operating in 2020. New natural gas capacity is expected to be commissioned in 2029 and 2042 to replace coal-fired units as they retire.
In November 2015, SaskPower committed to having 50% of electric generating capacity from renewable sources by 2030, with about 30% generated by wind power.footnote 17Manitoba
There is one coal-fired generating unit in operation in Manitoba, used only for emergency operations. It is expected to shut down by the end of 2019.New Bru...”
“...wer, a provincial Crown corporation, responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of most electricity in the province. In 2015, coal or petroleum coke-fired electricity generating units in New Brunswick accounted for 2.9% (2.3 Mt CO2e)footnote 18 of all GHG emissions from electric utility generation in Canada.
In 2017, New Brunswick had two coal-fired electricity generating units in operation with a total capacity of 837 MW. One of the two units, with a capacity of 357 MW is fuelled by petrol...”
“...ectricity generation and transmission assets owned by Nova Scotia Power Inc., a privately owned utility.
In 2017, Nova Scotia had eight coal-fired electricity generation units, with a total capacity of 1 247 MW. Under the existing regulation, six of these eight units have useful life ...”
“...ootnote 20 As a result, seven of the eight units (1 094 MW) are expected to operate beyond 2030 in the baseline scenario.
In 2015, coal-fired units in Nova Scotia accounted for 6.2% (4.9 Mt CO2e)footnote 21 of all GHG emissions from electric utility generation in Canada.
“... its 2009 Climate Change Action Plan, 2009 Energy Strategy, and 2010 Renewable Electricity Plan, Nova Scotia committed to transitioning from coal to more renewable energy sources. These policies required Nova Scotia Power Inc. to obtain 25% of electricity from renewable energy sources by 2015, ...”
“...ing to climate change. According to Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory, coal-fired electricity generating units are the highest emitting stationary sources of harmful GHGs and air pollutants in Canada, accounting for nearly 9%...”
“...ons of sulphur oxides, 6% of nitrogen oxides, and 16% of mercury. Although Canada has taken action to reduce GHG and air pollutant emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units, making a meaningful contribution to achieving its Paris Agreement commitment and further protecting the health an...”
The objective of the Amendments is to ensure that the permanent transition from high-emitting electricity sources (e.g. coal-fired electricity generation) to low- or non-emitting sources is achieved by 2030, which will further contribute to the protection of the enviro...”
Under the Regulations, the performance standard of 420 t of CO2/GWh of electricity produced applies to new coal-fired electricity generating units commissioned on or after July 1, 2015, and existing units that have reached the end of their useful life as d...”
“...tween 45 and 50 years of operation), or by 2030, whichever comes first. This performance standard is designed to phase out conventional coal by 2030.Regulatory and non-regulatory options considered
In order to achieve the objective of ensuring a permanent transition from high...”
“...s of electricity generation by 2030, the Department considered the following options:Status quo approach
Emissions of CO2 from coal-fired generating units are regulated under the Regulations, whereby high-emitting coal-fired units could continue operating beyond 2040 (with the last unit scheduled to close in 2053). Allowing high-emitting coal-fired units to operate would require other sectors to reduce GHG emissions even more in order to meet Canada’s 2030 emission target. This ...”
“... is pricing carbon pollution across Canada, and a crucial element of nationwide carbon pricing is the Greenhouse Gas Pollution Pricing Act, 2018. Coal-fired electricity generating units would be subject to provincial or federal carbon pricing in all provinces starting no later than January ...”
Existing and planned carbon pricing systems implemented by provincial and federal governments would reduce emissions from coal-fired electricity generation units, but the complete phase-out of conventional coal-fired electricity would be no sooner than as estimated in the Regulation.Regulated approach under CEPA
Reducing GHG emissions to the le...”
“...arget. The regulated approach leverages the existing regulatory framework to ensure that the permanent transition from conventional high-emitting coal-fired electricity generating sources to lower- or non-emitting sources is accomplished within the desired time frame. It is designed to provide regul...”
As shown in Figure 4, the most significant costs will be carried around 2029 and 2030 for commissioning new capacity to replace coal-fired generating units and for decommissioning units that have reached the end of their amended useful life. Those costs will be partly offset later,...”
“... as the net benefits of the Amendments.
Based on the information provided in consultation with utility stakeholders, it is assumed that coal-fired electricity units which will not meet the standards set in the Amendments (420 t of CO2/GWh of electricity produced), will shut down in 2030 as opposed to a later date set in the Regulation or in the provincial regulations (accelerated phase-out). Accelerating the closure of coal-fired generating units will reduce GHG and air pollutant emissions from the electricity sector, which will result in avoided climate change damage in...”
“... of consumers will be the social cost of the Amendments.Figure 5: Logic model for the analysis of the Amendments
A coal unit reaches its regulated end of life and must comply with the 420 t of CO2/GWh performance standard.
Shut down and replace with generation from non-coal-fired source. Three compliance strategies to respond to lost generation.
Build replacement capacity...”
Increase generation from existing non-coal units
Higher retail prices&...”
“...the federal backstop) are not included in the department’s modelling. Given the evidence from utilities, the analysis also assumed that six coal-fired electricity units in Alberta will convert to natural gas-fired units (coal-to-gas conversions) between 2020 and 2022.
The underlying assumption of the policy scenario is that electric utilities will respond to the ...”
“...he time frame considered for this analysis is 2019–2055. The end year for the analysis is meant to capture the full impact of replacing all coal-fired units early, since the last coal-fired generating unit is not expected to retire until 2053 in the baseline scenario. As shown in Figure 4, few costs are expected prior to 2029....”
“...l prices for electricity.footnote 24Compliance strategies
The Amendments will accelerate the regulated useful life for conventional coal-fired electricity generating units to the end of 2029. Electricity generating firms are expected to respond with one or a combination of the following three options to replace the lost generation from coal-fired electricity generating units:(a) build emission-compliant replacement capacity; (b) increase imports and/or decrease exports; or (c) increase generation from existing non-coal-fired units.
This analysis assumes that utilities will respond to lost generation from coal-fired electricity units with the same strategy in both the baseline and the policy scenario. For example, where the generation from a coal-fired generation unit is expected to be replaced with generation from a newly constructed natural gas-fired unit in the baseline scenario, then it will be expected to be replaced by a newly built natural gas unit in the policy scenario as well.Alberta
In the baseline scenario, coal-fired units in Alberta will be shut down by December 31, 2030, in response to Alberta’s Climate Leadership Plan. In the policy scenario, all coal units in Alberta will shut down at the end of 2029. This will create a 12-month gap between the baseline and policy scenarios. Any costs, benefits an...”
“...seline and policy scenarios, i.e. the 12-month earlier shutdown in the policy scenario versus the baseline scenario. The foregone generation from coal-fired units will be replaced through increased generation from existing utility generating units (including the coal-to-gas converted units).Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan is expected to build additional natural gas-fired capacity in 2042 to replace the coal unit that will close in 2043 in the baseline scenario. In the policy scenario, the coal unit in Saskatchewan will shut down at the end of 2029 with the lost coal-fired generation replaced by a new natural gas unit built around the same year. Natural gas-fired generating capacity is already expected to be built in that year to replace coal units closing in 2029 in the baseline scenario. The new units would have a greater capacity in the policy scenario than in the baseline scenario. This would result in incrementally higher generating costs between 2030 and 2043. The capital costs would be higher in 2029 to replace the coal unit early, but avoided in 2043 since it would have been decommissioned 13 years earlier.New Brunswick
New Brunswick is a reg...”
“...itimes, Quebec and New England. The province is expected to take advantage of its existing transmission capacity and replace lost generation from coal-fired units with hydroelectricity purchased from Quebec.
Historically, New Brunswick has been a net exporter of electricity. However, this ...”
“...the baseline scenario, approximately 480 MW of generating capacity in New Brunswick is expected to shut down around 2044, when the only coal-fired unit retires.
In the policy scenario, the early closure of the coal-fired unit would lead to approximately 480 MW of generating capacity shutting down in 2030. Electricity generated by the coal-fired unit would be replaced by reduced electricity exports and purchases from outside the province. This is expected to create a net inflow of elect...”
“...rting electricity from Quebec would less expensive than generating it with a natural gas-fired unit, but more expensive than generating it with a coal-fired power plant. As a result, increasing imports of hydroelectricity from Quebec when coal plants retire (as opposed to building new natural gas units) would result in lower electricity prices.Nova Scotia
In the baseline scena...”
“...ely beyond 2030, whereas it will end in 2030 in the policy scenario.
In the modelled scenarios, Nova Scotia will replace almost all its coal-fired electricity with electricity generated by new natural gas-fired units. There will also be some adjustment of the electricity trade flows in and...”
“... and send more electricity to New Brunswick in the policy scenario than in the baseline scenario, due to the demand created in New Brunswick when coal-fired electricity plants shut down.Updates to the analysis following publication in the Canada Gazette, Part I (CG-I)
Following the pu...”
“...nts. Below is the summary of substantive changes made to the analysis:Baseline assumption updates In Alberta, 6 out of the 12 coal-fired units that were to retire before 2029 as per the Regulations, convert to coal-to-gas plants between 2020 and 2022. They are assumed to operate for 10 years after the conversion to natural gas and produce an equivalent level of output to the previous coal units while emitting about 40% less GHG emissions.footnote 26 The coal-to-gas conversions are expected to reduce construction of new natural gas plants in the short-term, and increase fuel usage and GHG emissions in the policy scenario between 2029 and 2031 (year in which the last coal-to-gas plant is expected to retire). This would result in lower incremental net construction costs, higher incremental fuel costs, and lower GHG emission reductions in CG-II compared to CG-I. In New Brunswick, the main change is that a coal-fired plant, with a capacity of 480 MW, which had its forecast generation fixed at the last historical year level in CG-I, was allowed to freely dispatch in CG-II, resulting in higher projected generation in the baseline. This increased generation from the coal-fired plant in the baseline is expected to result in higher cost of replacing lost generation and higher GHG emission reductions in the policy scenar...”
“..., two natural gas steam boilers are no longer assumed to retire in the baseline in 2025 and 2032, respectively, and will keep operating. When the coal-fired plants close early due to the Amendment (in the policy scenario), the lost generation from the coal plants is compensated by increasing generation from these old and inefficient plants kept in operation as opposed to generation from new natural gas ...”
“...l gas usage is expected to increase due to the Amendments. The significantly higher price of natural gas in the Maritimes relative to the cost of coal increases fuel costs in the policy scenario relative to the baseline. Other modelling updates The CG-II analysis was based on the 201...”
“...ween CG-I and CG-II. For example, the estimated air quality benefits may be slightly smaller in Alberta in 2030, due to the incorporation of coal to gas conversions in the baseline scenario. Incremental impacts of compliance
Most of the incremental costs of the Amendments will occu...”
The human health impacts and resulting socio-economic benefits are highly dependent on population proximity to the source of emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. As mentioned above, it is the population exposure to changes in air quality, and not simply the absolute changes in par...”
“... includes a large benefit in Alberta ($310 million). The benefits estimated in Alberta attributable to the Amendments do not extend past 2030, as coal-fired units will shut down by 2031 in the baseline scenario. In 2035, the estimated health benefits across Canada are expected to be lower, appr...”
“...olicy scenarios, though at different times. Refurbishment costs are investments intended to restore the operational integrity of the unit. When a coal-fired unit is shut down early, refurbishment costs will be avoided.
There are significant upfront capital costs for compliance between 2026 and 2030 as replacement units are built and coal units are decommissioned. This is offset by avoided construction in later years and avoided refurbishment costs to keep coal-fired generating units running beyond 2030.
Overall, the Amendments will result in net capital cost savings of $305 million, as seen in ...”
“...w construction costs are avoided in the policy scenario. In the case of Nova Scotia, $708 million will be spent in the policy scenario to replace coal-fired generating units with natural gas-fired generating units by 2030. Since these units will be gradually replaced in the baseline scenario, t...”
The Amendments will result in $502 million in net avoided refurbishment costs. Coal-fired electricity generating units can operate for up to 50 years through refurbishments. Refurbishment costs vary according to the scope and in...”
“... be $55 million. Units are expected to be decommissioned the year they cease operating. In the policy scenario all decommissioning costs for coal-fired units will be carried in 2030. These costs will then be avoided in the future. Decommissioning costs are assumed to be $117/kW when scrap ...”
Natural gas-fired electricity generating units have lower fixed and variable O&M costs than coal-fired electricity generating units. The average undiscounted cost of fixed and variable O&M for a natural gas-fired combined cycle unit is expect...”
“...mately $6,210/MW, and $1.6/megawatt-hour (MWh), respectively in all provinces between 2019 and 2055. Whereas the average undiscounted costs for a coal-fired unit are $12,000/MW for fixed O&M and $2.1/MWh for variable O&M, over the same period.
The Amendments will result in lower O&am...”
“...ver the time frame. While fuel costs for most affected provinces will increase, New Brunswick will experience fuel savings from shutting down the coal-fired electricity generating unit in 2030 and replacing the lost generation with imports from Quebec. Incremental fuel costs for Alberta include higher fuel costs incurred by coal-to-gas converted units. These units use more fuel (are less efficient) compared to new natural gas units.Table 6.C: Incremental fuel cost...”
“...ut as shown in Table 7, the expected price paid by electric utility generators for natural gas is expected to be approximately double the cost of coal when compared in terms of cost for delivered energy, measured as dollars per million British thermal units (MMBtu).
Coal prices are forecast based on historic prices adjusted using the growth rate of the average mine mouth coal price taken from the United States Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook 2015 reference case.
Historical natural gas prices...”
“...ricity regulators for New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
Alberta is not expected to be significantly affected by the federal policy since a coal phase out is already planned for 2030 as part of the province’s Climate Leadership Plan. The Amendments require coal-fired units to shut down one year earlier (by December 31, 2029), but the effects are expected to be minimal in Alberta since business decisions w...”
“...sp;— accounted for roughly two thirds of Canadian exports in 2016. Ontario accounted for approximately 28% of Canadian exports and has no coal-fired electricity generation. While Canadian and American electricity markets are integrated to some extent, limits on transmission systems between the...”
“...se an average of 5% of projected Canadian electricity exports destined for the United States to be redirected to provinces that have phased out coal-fired generation capacity annually between 2030 and 2044.
Market forces, tax incentives, United States state-level environmental policies an...”
“...d rule of law.footnote 38Labour market considerations
Three sectors could experience direct labour market impacts from Amendments: coal mining; coal-fired electricity generation; and the coal transportation sector, including ports and railways.
In 2016, between 2 000 and 3 500 people were directly employed in the Canadian thermal coal mining sector, with mines located in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia. The sector’s labour force represents up to 0.02% of Canadian employment. footnote 39, footnote 40 Employment in the Canadian coal mining sector, which includes employment in both thermal coal and metallurgical coal mines, has declined since 2013, concurrent with a 12% decrease in coal production between 2013 and 2016.footnote 41 The prospect of increasing exports of Canadian thermal coal is weak. In 2017, Westmoreland’s Coal Valley Mine was the only Canadian thermal coal mine exporting its product. footnote 42 European markets are shrinking and are already being supplied by countries with lower production costs, while g...”
“...upplied by their own domestic production as well as cost-competitive Indonesian, Russian and Australian exports. Consequently, Canadian thermal coal exports are unlikely to increase and most Canadian thermal coal mines that supply domestic consumption are not expected to continue to operate after the Amendments come into effect.
In 2016, up to 1 500 workers were directly employed at coal-fired electricity plants that will be affected by the Amendments.footnote 43 Many of these jobs could be at risk as a result of the Amendments. However...”
“...cted to be mitigated by the construction or conversion and operation of new generating capacity. For example, recently announced conversions of coal units to natural gas in Alberta will allow them to extend their operating lives beyond regulatory phase-out dates. To put the above-mentioned employmen...”
“...ess 61 300 jobs between the second quarter of 2007 and the first quarter of 2017. footnote 44 Employment transitions for thermal coal mines and coal-fired electricity plants will occur gradually as operations are closed over time.
Employment estimates associated with transporting coal are not available. However, Canadian rail transportation is not expected to be significantly affected by the policy. In 2015, coal represented 13% of total tonnage shipped by rail in Canada. However, 87% of coal-by-rail shipments originated in British Columbia, which produces mostly metallurgical coal used for steel production that is not expected to be affected by the Amendments. Nearly 13% of coal-by-rail shipments originated in Alberta, virtually all of which were destined for British Columbia. Since British Columbia does not have coal-fired electricity generation, any thermal coal that is shipped from Alberta to British Columbia is likely exported, and is likely to be unaffected by the Amendments.
For provinces that import thermal coal, namely Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the Amendments will eliminate demand for such imports, resulting in a decrease in traffic at domestic ports and reduced railway use. These ports and associated railways are relatively more vulnerable to changes in coal traffic than those of Canada’s Pacific Coast. While coal accounts for an important share of their current economic activity, a significant portion of tonnage flowing through these ports is not coal. Therefore, it is unlikely that these ports will cease operations, though employment and revenue could be affected, as they transition their operations and adjust to the new business environment over time.Community-level impacts
Many of the jobs associated with coal-fired electricity generation are concentrated in small communities, and the economic effects for these communities could be significant given low coal prices and an unfavourable outlook for coal markets. As a result of the Amendments, most thermal coal mines currently in operation in Canada are not anticipated to operate past 2030 and some are expected to shut down before then. While aggregate employm...”
“...all and often transitional as local labour markets adjust, layoffs could be concentrated in small communities that are heavily dependent on the coal mining and/or electricity generation industry and therefore have significant effects in such communities.
To ensure a just and fair transiti...”
“...uel is one of the main factors in determining the impact of the Amendments. Table 14 shows the estimated total cost of the Amendments with coal and natural gas prices 20% higher or lower than forecast.Table 14: Fuel price sensitivity
Estimated average coal and natural gas prices (2020–2050)
Natural gas price
The bottom, right-hand cell of Table 14 shows the high incremental cost scenario where coal prices are 20% lower than expected and natural gas prices are 20% higher than expected. In this scenario, the total cost of the Amendments is nearly $3....”
“...the benefits will not change, the net benefit will remain positive. In order for a deviation in fuel prices to lead to a negative net benefit, coal will have to be about 43% lower, and natural gas about 43% higher, than forecast. This scenario will result in a total cost of slightly higher than $4.7 billion.Coal-to-natural-gas conversions
As stated above, some electricity firms in Alberta have indicated their intention to convert six coal-fired units to run on natural gas between 2020 and 2022. An electricity generating unit converted to run on natural gas will emit less CO2 than when it ran on coal. According to the Department’s modelling, the six confirmed conversions will lower Alberta’s GHG emissions due to the Amendments by about 3 ...”
“...generating capacity as the converted units, which are less efficient, will replace the need for building new natural gas generating units when coal-fired plants shut down early due to the Amendments. It should be noted that the complete impact of coal-to-gas conversions is not known as more conversions of coal-fired plants could be announced after the Amendments come into effect.Global GHG emission changes
Accounting for global GHG emission change...”
“...for a 60-day public comment period. The Notice advised of the intent of the Government to amend the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations published on September 12, 2012, and to develop regulatory requirements for natural gas-fired electrici...”
“...on of the Regulatory Impact Analysis Statement published with the proposed Regulations Amending the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations in the Canada Gazette, Part I, on February 17, 2018.
The Amendments were also subject to a 60-d...”
“... Policy objective
One industry stakeholder suggested that the Amendments should align the timing of the federal phase-out of conventional coal (end of 2029) with Alberta’s phase-out (end of 2030). This stakeholder suggested that the federal phase-out date conflicts with the agreements between the Government of Alberta and provincial coal operators, which included transition payments to the companies under the Climate Leadership Plan. In addition, a province indicated that the Regulations require more flexible timelines to phase out coal and transition to renewable electricity alternatives. They proposed delaying the coal phase-out by a decade to allow enough time to deploy feasible and least-cost alternatives such as nuclear or hydro. However, the requests to delay the A...”
“...er one year or a decade were not considered, as this will make it difficult for Canada to meet its GHG emission reduction targets. Accelerated coal phase-out is one of the mechanisms being used by the Government of Canada to meet its 2030 national and international targets of GHG reductions under the Paris Agreement. The Department also clarified that provinces may replace their phased-out coal-fired generation by selecting the generation options that best suits their circumstances. These may include, but are not limited to, importing electricity from neighbouring jurisdictions, building new natural gas plants, converting coal plants to operate on natural gas, building new wind capacity and other renewable energy sources, and pursuing equivalency agreements.
An environmental NGO stakeholder suggested that additional measures are required to ensure that a significant portion of retired coal-fired electricity is either replaced with renewable sources of electricity or energy storage capacity, or that replacement generation is not required du...”
“...ment with industry stakeholders was a concern that federal climate change policies affecting the electricity sector, including the accelerated coal phase-out, the clean fuel standard, and the output-based carbon pricing system, were being developed at a challenging pace and were overlapping each oth...”
“...xes and distributions, in collaboration with provincial stakeholders. The Department notes that the pathway selected by its model to phase out coal-fired electricity is not meant to represent the only pathway available. Rather, the model selects the lowest cost pathway, given the model inputs, to me...”
“...on (i.e. the section on uncertainty of impact estimates).Regulatory cooperation
Canada’s approach to phasing out conventional coal-fired electricity generation was developed in coordination with provincial and territorial governments, industry, and Indigenous peoples and is a key co...”
“... as well as the Canada Infrastructure Bank.
Provincial equivalency agreements may be considered to support provincial transitions from coal towards non-emitting sources of electricity. Equivalency agreements provide flexibility to provinces, where there is an enforceable provincial regime th...”
“..., both governments announced an agreement in principle for a new equivalency on the Amendments in order to help Nova Scotia move directly from coal-fired electricity to renewable sources like wind and hydro. Similarly, in November 2016, the Province of Saskatchewan and the Government of Canada ...”
“...om the electricity sector with the existing Regulations published in 2012. Canada is now proposing to accelerate the phase-out of conventional coal-fired electricity by 2030, which will contribute to achieving Canadian commitments under the Paris Agreement. Trade exposure in the electricity sector i...”
“...ration mix has a significantly higher proportion of non-emitting generation (approximately 80%) compared to the United States, which relies on coal-fired electricity for approximately one third of total generation.
The United State’s approach, established under the Obama administrat...”
“...ent of the United States’s approach was to reduce emissions from electricity generation, without specifically requiring the phase-out of coal-fired electricity. Differences in Canadian and United States performance standards for coal-fired electricity reflect these key differences in policy intent.
On October 10, 2017, the United States Environmental Protection Agency...”
“...ce the CPP. The draft ACE rule would require states to develop and submit plans requiring modest on-site efficiency improvements at individual coal plants.
Despite United States’s actions at the federal level, market forces and state-level climate change policies are expected to continue driving a decrease in coal use in the United States’s power sector. Coal provided 30% of United States’s electricity generation in 2016, down from 48%, compared to 2008. As a result, carbon emissions from the Unite...”
“...e 2005. However, the Energy Information Administration predicts that repealing the Clean Power Plan could slow the rate at which existing coal-fired plants are retired. The EPA’s proposal to repeal is not expected to have significant implications for Canada’s climate change action o...”
“... key supplier of clean electricity to the United States.
As Canada moves ahead with these Amendments aimed at phasing-out conventional coal-fired electricity by 2030, the international community is taking similar action.
In November 2017, the Government of Canada partnered with the Government of the United Kingdom to launch the Powering Past Coal Alliance, a global alliance which now has 74 members, including 28 national governments, 18 sub-national governments and 28 businesses or organizations, to phase out coal-fired electricity. footnote 45Rationale
The Amendments will require coal units to meet a stringent performance standard in 2030, and will contribute to phasing out conventional coal-fired electricity and ensuring the permanent transition from high-emitting electricity sources to low- or non-emitting sources.
This will contri...”
While existing and planned carbon pricing systems implemented by provincial and federal governments could reduce emissions from coal-fired electricity generation, the complete phase-out of conventional coal-fired electricity generation by 2030 is unlikely to occur without the Amendments.
The Department is open to considering equivalency agre...”
The electricity sector comprises both utility and industrial generation. However, only coal-fired generation in the utility sub-sector is being regulated.
Return to footnote 4 referrerFootnote...”
“...footnote 21 referrerFootnote 22
CO2 accounts for the vast majority (>99%) of GHG emissions from the coal-fired electricity generating units in Canada.
Return to footnote 22 referrerFootnote 23 ...”
“....transalta.com/newsroom/news-releases/transalta-board-approves-plan-for-accelerating-transition-to-clean-power-in-alberta/. Also note that the coalto-gas conversions generate less GHG emissions than coal-fired plants, but more GHG emissions than new natural gas plants.
Return to footnote 26 referrerFoot...”
Based on Statistics Canada (2016), Table 281-0024 (SEPH). Higher range employment numbers were estimated by prorating total coal employment (including thermal coal and metallurgical coal jobs) using the share of thermal coal production relative to total coal production in Canada. Lower range employment estimates were derived from the National Pollutant Release Inventory employment data, which only includes f...”
Return to footnote 40 referrerFootnote 41
Market Snapshot: Canadian coal production hits 30 year low: https://www.neb-one.gc.ca/nrg/ntgrtd/mrkt/snpsht/2017/03-05cndnclprdctn-eng.html
Return to footnote 41 referrerFootnote 42
Westmoreland’s Coal Valley Mine employs 438 people and exports coal to utilities in the Asia-Pacific region: http://westmoreland.com/location/coal-valley-mine-alberta/.
Return to footnote 42 referrerFootnote 43
Employment estimates are d...”
Return to footnote 44 referrerFootnote 45
Return to footnote 45 referrerFootnote 46
For more information, please vi...”
October 30, 2018
“... economy, totalling $32 billion in 2016. Key Canadian goods exported to CPTPP signatories include oil seeds, machinery and equipment, wheat, pork and coal. Canada’s merchandise imports from CPTPP signatories totalled more than $68 billion in 2017. Major imports included vehicles and their part...”
GREENHOUSE GAS POLLUTION PRICING ACT
“...one using a kiln, (xiv) the production of metal or diamonds from the mining or milling of ore or kimberlite, (xv) the production of coal by mining coal deposits, (xvi) the calcining of coal to produce char, (xvii) the production of activated carbon from coal, (xviii) the processing of natural gas, including processing to produce natural gas liquids, (xix) the production of potash fro...”
GAS POLLUTION PRICING ACT
The Minister of the Environment, pursuant to subsections 197(2) and (3) of the Greenhouse Gas Pollution Pricing Act footnote a, makes the annexed Greenhouse Gas Emissions Information Production Order.
biomass means plants or plant materials, animal waste or any product made of either of these, including wood and wood products, bio-charcoal, agricultural residues, biologically derived organic matter in municipal and industrial wastes, landfill gas, bio-alcohols, pulping liquor, sludg...”
“... produced by the facility and the quantity of gypsum and limestone added to the clinker, must be quantified in tonnes, separately.PART 5 Coal Mining Facility General
Covered industrial activities
37 This Part applies to regulated facilities that produce coal by mining coal deposits.Quantification of Emissions and Production
Emissions from certain specified emission types
38 (1) The GHGs set out in...”
“... CH4 and 0.4 kg/kL for N2O
Leakage emissions from(a) coal storage
WCI Method WCI.103
WCI Method WCI.104(b) underground coal mining
WCI Method WCI.253
WCI Method WCI.254
On-site transportation emissions
CO2, CH4 and N2O
GHGRP 2.A.1.c , 2.A.1.d, 2.A.2.e and 2.B
Leakage emissions – surface coal mining
(2) The CH4 leakage emissions from surface coal mining must be quantified by multiplying the quantity of coal extracted by the applicable emission factor set out in column 3 of the table to this subsection, according to the province of extraction set out in column 1 and the type of coal set out in column 2.
Column 1 Province
Column 2 Coal Type
Column 3 Emission Factor
CO2, CH4 and N2O
Leakage emissions from
(a) coal storage
WCI Method WCI.105
(b) underground coal mining
WCI Method WCI.255
On-site transportation emissions
CO2, CH4 and N2O...”
“...ducing char are not covered by this Part.
41 Production by the regulated facility must be quantified in tonnes of thermal coal and metallurgical coal, separately.PART 6 Scrap Based Steelmaking Facility General
Covered industrial activities
42 (1) Subject to subsection...”
“...ing:(a) for CO2, (i) in the case of any unit that has obtained a registration number under the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations, sections 20 to 26 of those Regulations, (ii) in the case of any unit that has not obtained a registration number under the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations and that generates electricity from the combustion of natural gas, sections 12 to 18 of the Regu...”
“...nit:(a) for CO2, (i) in the case of any unit that has obtained a registration number under the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations, section 27 of those Regulations, (ii) in the case of any unit that has not obtained a registration number under the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations and that generates electricity from the combustion of natural gas, section 19 of the Regulations...”
“...:(a) for CO2, (i) in the case of any unit that has obtained a registration number under the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations, section 28 of those Regulations, (ii) in the case of any unit that has not obtained a registration number under the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations and that generates electricity from the combustion of natural gas, section 20 of the Regulations...”
“... for Calculating GHG Emissions
Column 4 Sampling, Analysis and Measurement Requirements
Leakage emissions from coal storage
WCI Method WCI.103
WCI Method WCI.104
Industrial process emissions, from a...”
Column 2 GHGs
Column 3 Method for Estimating Missing Analytical Data
Leakage emissions from coal storage
WCI Method WCI.105
Industrial process emissions from acid gas scrubbers and acid gas ...”
“...uo;j” combusted in the unit. Each HHVj is determined in accordance with subsection 24(1) of the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations, and j is the jth fossil fuel type combusted in the unit during the calendar year, where “...”
“...uo;i” combusted in the unit. Each HHVi is determined in accordance with subsection 24(1) of the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations, and i is the ith biomass fuel type combusted in the unit during the calendar year, where “i&r...”
UNITED NATIONS ACT
“...rnment and both the Plateforme des mouvements d’autodéfense (the Plateforme) and the Coordination des Mouvements de l’Azawad (CMA) coalitions of armed groups. The Security Council also decided to impose a travel ban on, and freeze the assets of, designated individuals and entities...”
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