Airline: The Last Six Months
Of Federal Activity


This Report

This is a computer-generated report that shows all of the federal activity with respect to the keyword "Airline" over the last six months. This is a demonstration of the power of our government relations automation software.


House: 16 Speeches
Senate: 7 Speeches

House Senate


Active: 0


Filed: 3
Proposed: 0


The House

Mrs. Karen McCrimmon (Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness, Lib.)

December 7th
Hansard Link

Government Orders

“...c information would need to be provided to the CBSA. This information would be transmitted from the airlines to the CBSA so that the agency has information on everyone exiting Canada by air.


Mrs. Kelly Block (Carlton Trail—Eagle Creek, CPC)

November 29th
Hansard Link

Oral Questions

“...ister claims he has never heard any concerns about the Liberal carbon tax, yet we know the National Airlines Council of Canada has said, “[I]ntroducing a national carbon tax would exacerbate Canadian ...”

Mr. Matt Jeneroux (Edmonton Riverbend, CPC)

November 29th
Hansard Link

Oral Questions

“...anadian Federation of Agriculture, the Canadian Federation of Independent Business and the National Airlines Council of Canada are all stakeholders who have publicly said the carbon tax will hurt thei...”

Hon. Erin O'Toole (Durham, CPC)

November 23rd
Hansard Link

Private Members' Business

“... this as a corporate lawyer on the preservation of Air Canada, and many members will be taking that airline home this weekend. It did not go bankrupt. All the retirees were not left in the lurch. The ...”

Mr. Alexander Nuttall (Barrie—Springwater—Oro-Medonte, CPC)

November 21st
Hansard Link

Government Orders

“... money. They would like to see a more accessible environment in the sectors that matter, whether in airlines, government services offices, Service Canada or even these Parliament buildings. They want ...”

Mr. David de Burgh Graham (Laurentides—Labelle, Lib.)

November 21st
Hansard Link

Private Members' Business

“...ol every year at the Wheelair field in Mont-Tremblant, itself the site of Canada's first commercial airline. There have also been such events in Sainte-Anne-du-Lac and La Minerve over the past couple ...”

Mr. Todd Doherty (Cariboo—Prince George, CPC)

November 21st
Hansard Link

Private Members' Business

“...I worked on all sides of the industry. I was an owner. I owned an aviation company that worked with airlines in servicing both the back end in terms of baggage handling and ground support, as well as the front end, which was customer service. I was also an owner of a carrier. I was one of the original management and owners of WestJet. Then, I went over to the regulatory side and worked with Transport Canada for a number of years on the airport side and, finally, I was a consultant working all over the world in pursuit of aviation opportunities, security opportunities and trade opportunities for Canada.

I am very familiar with this issue of pilot shortage. As a matter of fact, one of last files I worked on was with one of the largest international carriers in the world that was here doing a job fair, looking for Canadian pilots or Canadian-trained pilots for its major network. Colleagues will be shocked to hear that they were so desperate they were looking for pilots who had even fewer than 100 hours of flight training, which speaks to the seriousness of the pilot shortage issue. The baby-boomer pilots represent almost 50% of the pilots flying today who are about to retire. Over the next 20 years, our commercial passenger market is going to double.

However, this is our real issue. The pilot shortages are now forcing carriers to make route decisions. Air service is such a vital component. It is critical to our northern communities. It is critical to the rural way of life. It connects people. It connects cargo. It provides critical care or critical medical transport.

With air service comes business. In a small community with a daily air service connecting to a larger market, one can be guaranteed that when a business is looking to relocate or invest in that community, it will be looking to connect their executives and employees to and from that area, as well as their goods.

We are seeing a number of issues in terms of the pilot shortage. The duty hour issue is coming in. We are seeing carriers having to make some serious decisions with respect to their route network. (1755)

Also, it is becoming increasingly more expensive to operate. Whether it is our uncompetitive environment regarding our tax system or the fee structure that airlines and passengers face when they are flying through our Canadian airports, it is getting harde...”

Mrs. Sherry Romanado (Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Seniors, Lib.)

November 21st
Hansard Link

Private Members' Business


Boeing and Airbus may be commercial competitors, but they agree that the growing shortage of airline pilots for their aircraft and for all commercial aircraft will be acute by 2036. They base their forecast on the need to double the number of commercial international flights to meet a record demand for airline travel and tackle the growing shortage of workers.[English]

Airbus's 2017 global forecast projects that 534,000 new pilots will be needed by 2036 just to fly passenger airliners of 100 seats or more.

Boeing recently released its 2018 Pilot and Technician Outlook...”

Mr. Ted Falk (Provencher, CPC)

November 21st
Hansard Link

Private Members' Business

“...30 or 40 years. They have trained thousands of pilots, many of whom fly for a lot of our commercial airline companies today. They do a wonderful job and have a fantastic safety record. I look at some ...”

Hon. Patty Hajdu

October 16th
Hansard Link

Government Orders

“...applies to people working for federal banks, railroads, marine transportation services and ferries, airlines and airports, and radio and television broadcasting.[English]

Bill C-65 would also, i...”

Mr. Randy Boissonnault

October 16th
Hansard Link

Government Orders

“Mr. Speaker, I am glad that my colleague is in robust health. As he can see, my hairline is taking the same trajectory that his has taken. I do not know if that makes us wiser or ju...”

Mr. Stephen Fuhr (Kelowna—Lake Country, Lib.)

October 15th
Hansard Link

Private Members' Business

“...f of flight operators state that finding qualified pilots is a significant challenge, with regional airlines reporting flight cancellations due to a lack of flight crew in the busy summer months. This problem will significantly worsen in the coming years, more broadly affecting the travelling Canadian public, unless action is taken.

In terms of recruitment challenges, the report notes that over half the flight operators surveyed say that finding qualified and experienced employees is a significant challenge. One-third cite finding pilots with applicable aircraft-type ratings their biggest skills challenge.

With new carriers commencing operations and established larger airlines experiencing both growth and the retirement of senior pilots, there has been an increase in the rate of drawing pilots from regional airlines and small operators. This is affecting regional airlines particularly hard. Smaller airlines are a training ground for young pilots, who will normally try to move up to larger carriers as soon as possible. Historically, it took two to three years before pilots moved up, but this can happen now in 18 months, and in some cases six months, under current conditions. This trend is forcing some regional carriers to lower their experience levels for new hires in an effort to maintain their operations.

This hurts regional airlines financially as well. Airlines are often required to give new hires a type endorsement for the type of aircraft they will fly. These training costs have traditionally been amortized over the expected retention period of a pilot. With retention periods dropping from three years to six months, the economics change dramatically. Some regional airlines have reported cancellations of flights due to a lack of pilots and/or higher training costs.

The increasing need for more pilots is also causing faster than normal attrition rates at flying schools. New instructors who would normally work two to three years before moving on to the airlines or charter jobs are now moving up within four to six months. This is resulting in flying schools having a serious problem maintaining a sufficient number of experienced instructors to take on chief or senior flight instructor roles. This in turn further reduces the supply of new pilots.

Some of the biggest challenges in pilot production in Canada are the high cost of training for new commercial pilots, the low starting salaries, and an industry that has evolved a non-linear career path.

The traditional pathway to becoming a pilot in Canada has involved earning licenses and ratings that cost approximately $75,000 yet can climb to over $150,000, with tuition and other student costs, when combined with post-secondary education. Most student pilots acquire substantial debt to cover these expenses. It is common to see high rates of attrition in flight programs due to a lack of financing.

Canadian pilots are also recruited by airlines outside Canada, where many of these positions pay more than local airlines offer. Overseas and larger companies draw pilots away from the flying schools and smaller operators. As previously noted, this adds strain not only for sensitive northern operators but also for niche operations, such as crop-spraying and forest firefighting.

Since I tabled this motion back in April, I have heard from a number of air operators, flight schools and aviation organizations, which all indicated that they are very concerned about the pilot shortage and the future of aviation in Canada. (1105)

Ms. Heather Bell, chair of the B.C. Aviation Council, had this to say on the matter:

As the Board Chair of the British Columbia Aviation Council, I am writing this letter in support of an industrywide request for focused financial assistance for Canadians pursuing careers as aviators. It is indisputable that the industry is facing a shortage of qualified pilots at all levels; local, national and international. This shortage is seeing scheduled carriers cancelling flights as qualified pilots are being recruited “up and out” of small and regional operators into the more lucrative positions offered at a national or even international level. While this type of career progression has long been the way of the industry, we are facing a crisis as there is not the requisite level of new pilots entering the system to sustain the pilot “pipeline”. The issue is being exacerbated as we are seeing a dearth of qualified flight instructors making the training of new pilots more and more difficult. Further, the impending regulation change around Flight and Duty Time will see an increased need for pilots over and above the shortages currently forecasted.

In British Columbia, we have many remote communities that rely on air service for routine medical and food supply. Our concern, as local operators struggle with pilot resources, is that this critical access is at risk. One local operator has had to hire and train the equivalent of 100% of their pilot workforce in less than one year; a costly endeavour that also leads to a cadre of less experienced pilots. Other operators have been advertising long-term for pilots for every aircraft type in their fleet, and while they are receiving applications, they are unable to move forward as they cannot keep a training pilot on staff. Another operator that services both Northern BC and Alberta is so stymied by attempts to hire locally that they are actively recruiting internationally but are running headlong into immigration issues that make hiring from outside Canada an economic impossibility.

As an Aviation Council that is focused on ensuring the sustainability of our industry, BCAC fears this pilot shortage will have severe and critical impacts not only on our economy and operators, but on our remote and Indigenous communities. As one of the barriers to increased pilot supply is definitely the financial burden of obtaining the requisite flight time experience, we feel increased financial aid would be a strong indicator that the government is aware of the issue and supporting positive change.


Heather Bell

In my riding of Kelowna—Lake Country, Carson Air, a well-respected cargo, air ambulance, flight training and aircraft maintenance company, had this to add:

The challenges faced by Flight Training Units are many and complex. The high cost of the initial training to receive a commercial pilot's license (CPL) leaves students deeply in debt. To ask CPL students to remain in training longer to receive an Instructor Rating is very challenging now. With the current state of hiring in the industry, new pilots do not need to spend the time instructing to build hours to move to commercial operators. Many operators, even including major airlines, are accepting some candidates directly out of flight school with a Commercial Pilot License and little to no actual time in the cockpit.

This obviously creates a trickle down effect where there are then less pilots to train the next generation, and the shortage then intensifies.

At Carson Air, we have a constant backlog of students due to a shortage of instructors. Less and less students are attracted to the industry due to the historically low wages, and high costs of entry and training.

Changes to infrastructure which could help the Flight Training Units would best be served in the form of additional funding available to students. Currently, the cost of a 2 year Commercial Aviation Diploma program is approximately $85,000.00. Of that, most students are eligible for only about $28,000 in student loans. The barriers are huge and many qualified candidates are simply not applying. If they do get through, working as an instructor when you can move to a Commercial flying position in some cases right away is not attractive to them, at all.

Currently we estimate that a 30% increase in training rates is needed in order to retain qualified instructors. This will simply magnify the cycle of higher costs and fewer students.

Programs which allow for streamlined or aviation specific Labour Market Impact Analysis for aviation related jobs—both pilots and Aircraft Maintenance Engineers—are also urgently needed. Collaboration between government ministries [is required] to ensure immigration can be fast tracked for pilots and AMEs with suitable qualifications. Our studies have found that suitable candidates exist world wide, and these people wish to come to Canada. However, applying the tests of LMIAs and other requirements is excessively onerous. Additionally, the current classification system puts pilots in the same category as skilled trades, requiring a potential employer to pay wages equivalent to highly paid skilled tradespeople in that province for what amounts to an entry level position. Paying high wages for starting level positions creates animosity among employees and financial difficulties for employers. (1110)

The challenges faced that I have noted above are what we are seeing in the industry currently, today. If and when the proposed Fatigue Management Regulations for pilots come into effect, we estimate that there will be up to 30% more pilots required for the work that we are doing today. This does not take into effect attrition through retirement and airline hiring in the future. This will force operators to reduce service, and potentially create sa...”

Mr. Jim Eglinski (Yellowhead, CPC)

October 15th
Hansard Link

Private Members' Business

“ choices down the road. When I flew to Ottawa from my riding yesterday, I only had two options of airlines. It is hard to expect an industry to diversify and compete when it does not have enough talent to draw on. I have read of many cases in the news where flights were cancelled because the crew members needed to rest and there was not another crew to replace them. From a pilot and safety standpoint, I completely understand the need for rest, but as a consumer, this can be incredibly frustrating. If there were more pilots, perhaps a lot of these cancellations could be avoided because there would be someone to replace those who need to rest. Increasing the number of pilots and retaining them could help increase airline choices for Canadians and benefit the consumer experience when flying.

Not only do we need pilots for the large airline companies, but there are also a lot of other industries in Canada which rely on pilots. They...”

Mr. Angelo Iacono (Alfred-Pellan, Lib.)

October 15th
Hansard Link

Private Members' Business

“...ed pilots.

The demand is not limited just in Canada; it is a growing trend globally. In 2017, airlines around the world carried more than four billion passengers, which is more than double the number they carried in 2004. That number is projected to keep growing for the foreseeable future. (1145) [Translation]

The resulting global demand for pilots and crew members is not something we can ignore.

We want to ensure that Canada's aviation sector has a rich and diverse talent pool.

Our colleague from Kelowna—Lake Country is right to ask the committee to study flight training schools in Canada to ensure that they can function effectively, that there are no unnecessary regulatory barriers, and that they can train enough pilots to meet our own needs.

We already know that certain factors have a direct influence on the number of trained pilots and crew members available in the aviation sector. For one thing, the very high cost of training is a deterrent to many who would be interested. For another, the dearth of instructors directly impacts training capacity. In addition, the large number of international students makes it harder for Canadians to access flight training.

In essence, Canadian flight training programs have so much to offer that we have become the collateral victims of our own success.

The labour supply problem in the aviation sector is complex and calls for a multi-layered approach that requires co-operation with a number of stakeholders.

This means that Canada will face a shortage of qualified pilots unless the aviation sector, training schools, the provinces and the federal government work together to develop a strategy to fill the gaps.[English]

Industry voices have already identified the scale of the issue in the field. The Transport Canada-commissioned 2016 Conference Board of Canada report entitled, “Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for Canada's Transportation Sector to 2030”, highlights that the shortage of domestic air pilots, aircraft maintenance engineers and flying instructors, already deficient of 200 employees in 2015, is estimated to reach close to 550 by 2030.

The Air Transport Association of Canada, an industry association representing air operators, estimates that the industry will face a shortage of 6,000 pilots by 2036. The numbers are certainly daunting, but they represent what is expected to happen if no action is taken.

Fortunately, there is already action on a number of fronts. The commercial airline industry in Canada hosted a labour market strategy day, where almost half of the participant...”

Mrs. Kelly Block (Carlton Trail—Eagle Creek, CPC)

October 15th
Hansard Link

Private Members' Business

“...challenges might simply be the nature of the industry or be necessary due to the region in which an airline operates, nonetheless they can be a factor that a prospective pilot will consider. If they can be mitigated by the airline or the industry, they should be looked at.

One area in which airlines and flight schools and perhaps the federal government could partner would be to review the costs and length of time it takes for a new pilot to become qualified. I want to stress that in no way am I suggesting that the safety or the quality of the training should be compromised. When I read that it can cost up to $75,000 for a pilot to reach a level of training in order to be employed as a commercial pilot, I can only imagine that this is a daunting sum for a prospective student considering this as a career path.

1 wonder whether airlines and flight schools could, together with students, develop a partnership in order to: first, alleviate some of the financial risk and burden for the student; second, provide a guaranteed pool of qualified pilots for airlines; and finally, provide a steady flow of students to the flight schools. It should be recognized that this issue is not specific to Canada or even North America. The issue of pilot shortages is one that the airline industry is facing worldwide.

However, coming back to the motion before us, in conclus...”

Hon. Deepak Obhrai (Calgary Forest Lawn, CPC)

October 1st
Hansard Link

Private Members' Business

“...012, CAE, another great Canadian success story, from Montreal, built an aircraft simulator for Cebu airlines. I had the opportunity to be at the opening ceremony with former president Aquino. We put a...”

The Senate

Hon. Tony Dean

December 4th
Hansard Link

Budget Implementation Bill, 2018, No. 2 Second Reading

“...ks; marine shipping; ferry and port services; air transportation including airports, aerodromes and airlines; railway and road transportation that involves crossing provincial or international borders...”

Hon. Leo Housakos (Acting Deputy Leader of the Opposition)

November 22nd
Hansard Link

National Finance Motion to Authorize Committee to Study Issues Related to Public Assistance Provided to Multinational Companies by the Government—Debate Adjourned

“...lippantly with taxpayers’ money. Jim Flaherty attached conditions in the government’s deal with the airline, including a freeze on executive compensation tied to the rate of inflation, a ban on specia...”

Hon. Ratna Omidvar

November 20th
Hansard Link

National Security Bill, 2017 Second Reading—Debate Continued

“ they were stopped at the airport their son was in a stroller. Certainly everybody could see, the airlines, the CBSA officers, this toddler is not a terrorist, but the law is the law and they must follow the process. So what does that mean? They can’t check in online, so they have to be at the airport well in advance of any flight. If they don’t, they may miss it because they will be stopped and questioned rigorously. Since they can’t check in online, they often don’t get to sit together in the plane. They are stopped, they are questioned, and they have to line up for secondary security to be cleared for travel. They are flagged. It is no wonder they feel unduly stigmatized and leery of travel. Even if they manage to get clearance to fly that one time, the same ugly situation rears its head the next. So they fear travelling to other countries because they don’t know if they can get there and, even worse, they don’t know if they can get back. This has generated, obviously, a great deal of anxiety for the parents. The delegation from the No Fly List Kids also told me about the very real impact of being on the list has on the children outside of family trips and family vacations. Their ability to participate in team sport events, like soccer or hockey, is limited when the teams have to cross the border to compete. And, of course, this extends to academic exchanges, music, culture, youth leadership opportunities, et cetera, and all because of a name. The No Fly List Kids was formed by Sulemaan Khan. Sulemaan’s son Adam has been flagged since he was a newborn, since his name “Adam Khan” is a pretty common name. On a trip to Mexico, they almost didn’t make it back to Canada. They had their passports confiscated with no explanation and almost missed their flight home. In 2015, they travelled to the NHL Winter Classic in Massachusetts. That was going to be a great trip for the family. At the airport, their son was flagged again. This time Sulemaan tweeted out the picture and the story went viral, and he was contacted by hundreds of families in the same situation, and so the No Fly List Kids was born. (1500) The group has grown to over 200 families, but there may be as many as 100,000 people who are affected. As children age, simple delays may well turn into outright detention. What if the person is falsely identified in a country that doesn’t share our values and processes? It’s not only kids but adults as well. I will give you a story from an adult. Scott Evans is a digital technology leader and he works with companies such as Microsoft, the Toronto Star and Kijiji. He travels all the time and was shocked to find out that he was a listed traveller. As someone who travels tens of thousands of miles a year for business, ease of travel is essential for success in business. Curiously, if a Canadian is on the American no-fly list they have the ability to apply to the Department of Homeland Security and there is a program called the Traveller Redress Inquiry Program. He did that and was taken off the U.S. list, but not off the list in Canada because we don’t have such a process. Bill C-59 provides a simple and pretty straightforward solution to deal with this problem. It maintains the no-fly list, but creates a new system to deal with false positives and provides a better remedy for people to get their names off the list. It authorizes the minister to include more identifiers, such as a middle name, and other identifiers that will be determined in regulation. This makes common sense. The minister will be able to issue a unique identifying number to travellers when checking in for a flight. This will allow airlines to screen them in a unique way once they arrive at the airport. Both objectives are met: Ca...”

Hon. Pierre J. Dalphond

October 18th
Hansard Link

Customs Act Bill to Amend—Second Reading—Debate Continued

“...ns leaving Canada. For those travelling by plane, the information will be collected directly by the airline then forwarded to the agency. For those crossing the border on land, the information will be...”

Hon. Mary Coyle

September 26th
Hansard Link

Customs Act Second Reading—Debate Adjourned

“...ry. Phase 4 is meant to establish an exit system, similar to that in the United States, under which airlines would be required to submit their passenger manifest information to the Canada Border Services Agency on outbound international flights. The Office of the Auditor General of Canada confirmed in the fall of 2016 that the final two phases, Phase 3 and Phase 4, would be implemented in 2018. The proposed changes authorized in Bill C-21 to the Customs Act would provide the Canada Border Services Agency, or CBSA, with the legislative authority to collect basic exit information on all travellers leaving Canada. The information gathered is simple biographical data that can be found on page 2 of one’s passport, such as name, date of birth, sex, nationality. This information will allow the CBSA to track who has left the country and when. Up until now, the CBSA has only been able to collect information on travellers entering Canada. This has resulted in an information gap which may cause law enforcement to miss the exit from our country of, for example, Amber alert victims, individuals escaping justice, individuals seeking to join recognized terrorist groups abroad, or known high-risk travellers and their goods, such as human or drug smugglers or exporters of other illicit goods. Bill C-21 will close this information gap by authorizing the CBSA to collect exit information on all travellers. For those leaving by land, the CBSA will receive information from U.S. Customs and Border Protection, which collects the same information on entry into the United States. For those leaving by air, the CBSA will receive this information from the airlines. In other words, travellers won’t have to provide any additional information or be otherwis...”

Senator Coyle

September 26th
Hansard Link

Customs Act Second Reading—Debate Adjourned

“...rmation from the U.S. border control or, as I said before, from a flight manifest. That includes an airline’s manifest if somebody is flying internationally — not just not U.S. but anywhere internatio...”

Hon. Art Eggleton

September 25th
Hansard Link

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act Bill to Amend—Second Reading—Debate Adjourned

“...ed in the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives study as having a pension funding deficit include airlines and banks; these pension plans are governed federally by the Pension Benefits Standards Act...”

Filed Regulations

Regulations Amending the Canadian Aviation Regulations (Parts I, VI and VII — Flight Crew Member Hours of Work and Rest Periods): SOR/2018-269

December 7, 2018 SOR/2018-269
Gazette Link

“...nism. The prescriptive regime applies to air operators who are subject to Subparts 703 Air Taxi Operations, 704 Commuter Operations and 705 Airline Operations of the CARs. Medical evaluation (Medevac) flights footnote 3 will continue to follow the prescriptive regime that was in effect pri...”

“...sulted in injuries or fatalities, in which fatigue has been attributed as a factor: (1) on October 14, 2004, an international cargo aircraft (MK Airlines, flight 1602) crashed while attempting to take off from Halifax International Airport, and seven crew members were killed; and (2) on Ja...”

“...le 1). The prescriptive regime will apply to air operators who are subject to Subparts 703 Air Taxi Operations, 704 Commuter Operations, and 705 Airline Operations of the CARs. Medevac flights will continue to follow the prescriptive regime that was in effect prior to the coming into force of t...”

“...due to reduced incidents,footnote 35 (e.g. avoided medical costs, environmental damage, third party damage, on-ground fatalities, loss of reputation, airline and airport delay, rescue costs, cargo and passenger luggage damage and loss), as well as improved flight crew members’ welfare.



Avoided third party damage and on-ground fatalities

Avoided loss of reputation

Avoided airline delay and rescue costs

Avoided cargo and passenger luggage damage and loss

*Due to rounding, som...”

“...ted by the science, all of the representatives for air operators opposed the Working Group report and the resulting proposals.

The National Airlines Council of Canada (NACC), representatives of the pilots’ associations (Air Canada Pilots Association [ACPA], WestJet Pilots Association...”

“... carriers were excluded from the application of the U.S. FAA’s new flight and duty time rules (Part 117 footnote 41), they must follow the Airline Safety and Federal Aviation Administration Extension Act of 2010, footnote 42 in which U.S. Congress mandated that all Part 121 air carri...”

“...MS will be a costly and complex exercise that is beyond the capability of many air operators in Canada; and FRMS is most suited to the scheduled airlines operational context and does not provide sufficient mechanisms to adapt to other types of flight operations, such as Medevac; thus compromisi...”

“...ts, exacerbating this shortage. Stakeholders further indicated that the pilot shortage has a greater impact on regional/small air operators, as large airlines target their pilots for hiring.

Transport Canada is also concerned about the issue of pilot shortage in Canada. There are several f...”

“... of 65, which is leading to a reduced supply of experienced pilots while the industry is quickly expanding. According to the U.S. FAA, large American airlines will have to replace over 18 000 pilots over the next three years due to the mandatory retirement age of 65, along with hiring additiona...”

“...ilots as operations expand. Global aviation growth — emerging markets. The pilot shortage is more notable across the Middle East and Asia. Airlines in this part of the world are expanding rapidly and do not have enough experienced local pilots. These airlines are forced to recruit pilots, with significant financial incentives, from parts of the world where aviation has been established for a longer period, such as Canada and the U.S., driving up demand for these pilots. According to Canadian Aviation Electronics, nearly 10% of Asian Pacific airline pilots are expatriates. In some instances, airlines in the Middle East source over half of their pilots from outside their region. High cost of a pilot’s licence. The costs associate...”

“... taken through a provincially recognized college program. A new pilot may have invested over $100,000 into their training by the time they achieve an airline transport pilot licence (ATPL). Time required for pilot training. The time required in completing each requirement for an ATPL, specifica...”

“...ific prescriptive regime to address every possible scenario may not be practical. The Canadian aviation landscape is very broad and ranges from large airlines to cargo-only operations to on-demand operations to remote operations, among others. Given the unique operating environment of each of these ...”

“...working with four large air operators on FRMS pilot projects, including a firefighting air operator (Subpart 702), a cargo-only air operator, an airline (Subpart 705), and an air operator conducting flights under Subparts 705, 704, 703 and 702. These pilot projects are expected to pro...”

“...e and have not made any link between fatigue and accidents/incidents.

Many studies have shown a significant relationship between commercial airline accidents and human error. According to the European Cockpit Association, about 70% of fatal accidents are related to human error. It has been...”


As indicated in the cost-benefit analysis accompanying these amendments, many studies have shown a significant relationship between commercial airline accidents and human error, including flight crew fatigue. ICAO also identifies fatigue as a major human-factor safety hazard because it affect...”

“...heir Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest Requirements regulations. The stakeholder indicated that using the 15-year timeframe magnifies the cost to major airlines.

As Transport Canada explains in this RIAS, due to the 4-year transitional period for certain air operators, a 10-year timeframe wi...”

“...he U.S. FAA decided to deviate from the ICAO requirements by exempting cargo-only operations (however, U.S. Congress mandated, in accordance with the Airline Safety and Federal Aviation Administration Extension Act of 2010, that all large air carriers, in both passenger and cargo operations, develop...”

“ to six hours. As long as 8 hours of sleep is achieved in a 24-hour period, performance can be sustained.

5. Fitness for duty

Although airlines are taking appropriate actions to encourage flight crew members to report suspicions related to substance abuse, there remains a strong need ...”

“...t risk due to fatigue?,” Journal of Safety Research, 2003, 34, 309-313. Velazquez J. “The presence of behavioral traps in U.S. airline accidents: A qualitative analysis,” Safety, 2018, 4.

Return to footnote 47 referrer


Regulations Respecting Compulsory Insurance for Ships Carrying Passengers: SOR/2018-245

November 23, 2018 SOR/2018-245
Gazette Link

“...llers. The Canadian public expects that commercial carriers in all modes are insured for accidents as is indeed the case for all non-marine carriers (airlines, taxis, buses and trains). The Regulations will meet public expectations and increase confidence in Canadian marine carriers. Since insurance...”

Regulations Amending the Canadian Aviation Regulations (Parts I and X — Greenhouse Gas Emissions from International Aviation — CORSIA): SOR/2018-240

November 9, 2018 SOR/2018-240
Gazette Link

“..., Canada’s negotiation positions. Transport Canada consulted with our impacted operators through their associations — namely the National Airlines Council of Canada, the Air Transit Association of Canada and the Canadian Business Aviation Association. Stakeholders have also been well bri...”

“...old several series of international seminars to help operators understand CORSIA and their obligations.

Furthermore, two of Canada’s airlines have participated in a CORSIA implementation pilot project sponsored by ICAO and the German Government. The results of this project have furt...”

“... were received. It is not expected that the travelling public will be directly affected in terms of public interest, safety or scheduling. Individual airlines will have the flexibility to choose the manner by which they absorb any costs associated with the implementation of CORSIA. There are no requ...”

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